Immunity and pathogen control
The key to a healthy cow is a good immune system. A properly functioning immune system should protect a dairy cow from a variety of pathogenic organisms. The immune system utilises a complex set of mechanics to identify and neutralise pathogens. We can identify 2 different immunity pathways: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is characterised by an early and rapid response to a pathogen challenge, that can occur within seconds and work as the first barrier against infection. The adaptive immune system has a delayed response and can take several days to react. It has a more specific response towards infectious pathogens and works as a second line of defence.
The innate immune system often eliminates a problem quickly, possibly even with no sign of sickness in the animal. In more severe cases, the animal reacts with the development of inflammation, which is one of the main mechanisms of innate immunity, operating as a defensive measure against infection.