Raising the barriers of the innate immune system
It is possible to help the adaptive immune system to be more efficacious after a vaccination. This specific reaction is associated with a non-specific one, called the innate immunity.
The first defence line is composed of physical barriers (skin, epithelium, tight junction, mucus on epithelial cells, trachea cilia flutter, gut peristalsis), chemical barriers (fatty acids, lysozyme, proventricular pH acidity, antibacterial peptides), and microbiologic barriers.
The second defence line is composed of phagocytes, able to eliminate bacteria opsonized by the complement system, and mast cells, able to ‘wake up’ the immune system when there is an infection. Finally it is composed of natural killer cells, able to kill directly virus infected cells or tumour cells.