A review of mycotoxins toxicity to explore preventive solutions for animals.

A review of mycotoxins toxicity to explore preventive solutions for animals.

Phileo is pleased to inform you Virginie Marquis will give an oral presentation during the World Mycotoxin Forum on Tuesday 10H10 entitled A review of mycotoxins toxicity to explore preventive solutions for animals.
She will give an overview of the toxic effects of mycotoxins on animal health and will discuss strategies on how to compensate the different negative effects of mycotoxin-contaminated diets in animal.

Contamination of feedstuffs with mycotoxins is a persistent global problem negatively affecting animal health with a major impact on animal production.

Mycotoxins have been shown to cause a broad variety of toxic effects in animals, exerting both acute and chronic toxic effects. Acute or subacute intoxication, following ingestion of high dose of toxins, are very pronounced but remain fortunately rare.
Chronic exposure (repeated ingestion of low doses of toxins, representative of field situation) is of great concern because of the insidious nature and the persistence of mycotoxins.
In addition, for many contaminated diets the challenge is from the possible co-occurrence of a high number of mycotoxins, in particular the interaction effects, could impact animal health at already low doses.

Here we present research data focusing on effects of mycotoxins and strategies on how to compensate the different negative effects of mycotoxin-contaminated diets in animal bodies.
Mycotoxin ingestion may affect animal by reducing feed consumption, reducing nutrient utilization, suppressing immune function, altering reproduction, irritating tissues, and causing cellular death. Biological effects include liver and kidney toxicity, central nervous system effects, and estrogenic effects.
Considering that mycotoxins interact initially with the intestinal epithelium and although mycotoxins have distinct actions, they all mediate intestinal damage through different mechanisms:

  • Inhibition of protein synthesis (AF, DON);
  • An altered cytokines production (DON, FUM, ZEA);
  • Inhibition of ceramide synthase (FUM).

Thereby exposure to mycotoxins may induce gastro-intestinal inflammation, necrosis within the intestinal tract, affects mucosal immunity and disturbs the gut barrier function.
Affecting the intestinal health will increase the susceptibility of animal to intestinal (and systemic) infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

Management strategies to reduce mycotoxins in animal feeds have been extensively studied, and include prevention methods with pre- and post-harvest strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination.  However, practical difficulties to effectively prevent contamination using these techniques have led to investigation on decontamination methods for feed materials. Once mycotoxins are ingested by animal, different strategies to counteract mycotoxins effects can be used:

  • Decreasing the bioavailability by the inclusion of mycotoxin detoxifying agents in the feed.
    These detoxifiers can be divided into two different classes, namely mycotoxin binders and mycotoxin biotransforming agents.
  • Improving intestinal health and immunity will alleviate the negative impact of mycotoxins.
  • Diet management.
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